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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21266-21305; doi:10.3390/ijms141121266

Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

1
Department of Physics, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, 15551, UAE
2
Superconductivity & Magnetic Measurements Laboratory, Physics Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, 15551, UAE
4
Centre of Research Excellence in Nanobioscience 203, Eberhart Building University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC 27412, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2013)

Abstract

Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.
Keywords: Superparamagnetism; nanoparticle; magnetic moment; exchange; anisotropy; surface spin; core-shell; ferrite; MRI; contrast agent Superparamagnetism; nanoparticle; magnetic moment; exchange; anisotropy; surface spin; core-shell; ferrite; MRI; contrast agent
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Issa, B.; Obaidat, I.M.; Albiss, B.A.; Haik, Y. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21266-21305.

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