Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 20555-20563; doi:10.3390/ijms141020555
Article

The Key Enzyme of the Sialic Acid Metabolism Is Involved in Embryoid Body Formation and Expression of Marker Genes of Germ Layer Formation

email, email, email, email and * email
Received: 28 August 2013; in revised form: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The bi-functional enzyme UDP-N-acetyl-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) is the key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis. Sialic acids are negatively charged nine carbon amino sugars and are found on most glycoproteins and many glycolipids in terminal positions, where they are involved in a variety of biological important molecular interactions. Inactivation of the GNE by homologous recombination results in early embryonic lethality in mice. Here, we report that GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells express less differentiation markers compared to wild-type embryonic stem cells. As a result, GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells fail to form proper embryoid bodies (EB) within the first day of culture. However, when culturing these cells in the presence of sialic acids for three days, also GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells form normal EBs. In contrast, when culturing these cells in sialic acid reduced medium, GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells proliferate faster and form larger EBs without any change in the expression of markers of the germ layers.
Keywords: sialic acid biosynthesis; UDP-N-acetyl-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase; embryonic stem cells; embryoid bodies; gene expression
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [490 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014 05:12 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Weidemann, W.; Hering, J.; Bennmann, D.; Thate, A.; Horstkorte, R. The Key Enzyme of the Sialic Acid Metabolism Is Involved in Embryoid Body Formation and Expression of Marker Genes of Germ Layer Formation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 20555-20563.

AMA Style

Weidemann W, Hering J, Bennmann D, Thate A, Horstkorte R. The Key Enzyme of the Sialic Acid Metabolism Is Involved in Embryoid Body Formation and Expression of Marker Genes of Germ Layer Formation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(10):20555-20563.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Weidemann, Wenke; Hering, Jessica; Bennmann, Dorit; Thate, Annett; Horstkorte, Rüdiger. 2013. "The Key Enzyme of the Sialic Acid Metabolism Is Involved in Embryoid Body Formation and Expression of Marker Genes of Germ Layer Formation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 10: 20555-20563.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert