Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 19831-19845; doi:10.3390/ijms141019831
Article

Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression?

1
, 2
, 2
, 1
, 1
, 1
 and 1,*
Received: 26 August 2013; in revised form: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4702 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) has various effects on the central nervous system with several neuropathological alterations including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage from respiratory depressing effects and neuroinflammatory response. Both of these mechanisms induce the release of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators by the activation of many cell types such as leucocytes and endothelial and glial cells, especially microglia, the predominant immunocompetent cell type within the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation between intravenous heroin administration in heroin related death and the neuroinflammatory response. We selected 45 cases among autopsies executed for heroin-related death (358 total cases); immunohistochemical studies and Western blotting analyses were used to investigate the expression of brain markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α, oxygen-regulated protein 150, (interleukins) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, and CD68 (MAC387). Findings demonstrated that morphine induces inflammatory response and cytokine release. In particular, oxygen-regulated protein 150, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, IL-6 and IL-15 cytokines were over-expressed with different patterns of cellular expression.
Keywords: heroin-related death; cytokines; chaperones; neuroinflammatory response; oxygen-regulated protein 150; heat shock proteins; cyclooxygenase-2 heroin-related death; cytokines; chaperones; neuroinflammatory response; oxygen-regulated protein 150; heat shock proteins; cyclooxygenase-2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Neri, M.; Panata, L.; Bacci, M.; Fiore, C.; Riezzo, I.; Turillazzi, E.; Fineschi, V. Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 19831-19845.

AMA Style

Neri M, Panata L, Bacci M, Fiore C, Riezzo I, Turillazzi E, Fineschi V. Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(10):19831-19845.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Neri, Margherita; Panata, Laura; Bacci, Mauro; Fiore, Carmela; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Fineschi, Vittorio. 2013. "Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 10: 19831-19845.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert