Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 19831-19845; doi:10.3390/ijms141019831
Article

Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression?

1 Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Foggia, Ospedale Colonnello D'Avanzo, Viale degli Aviatori 1, Foggia 71100, Italy 2 Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, Perugia 06100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2013; in revised form: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
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Abstract: Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) has various effects on the central nervous system with several neuropathological alterations including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage from respiratory depressing effects and neuroinflammatory response. Both of these mechanisms induce the release of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators by the activation of many cell types such as leucocytes and endothelial and glial cells, especially microglia, the predominant immunocompetent cell type within the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation between intravenous heroin administration in heroin related death and the neuroinflammatory response. We selected 45 cases among autopsies executed for heroin-related death (358 total cases); immunohistochemical studies and Western blotting analyses were used to investigate the expression of brain markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α, oxygen-regulated protein 150, (interleukins) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, and CD68 (MAC387). Findings demonstrated that morphine induces inflammatory response and cytokine release. In particular, oxygen-regulated protein 150, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, IL-6 and IL-15 cytokines were over-expressed with different patterns of cellular expression.
Keywords: heroin-related death; cytokines; chaperones; neuroinflammatory response; oxygen-regulated protein 150; heat shock proteins; cyclooxygenase-2

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MDPI and ACS Style

Neri, M.; Panata, L.; Bacci, M.; Fiore, C.; Riezzo, I.; Turillazzi, E.; Fineschi, V. Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 19831-19845.

AMA Style

Neri M, Panata L, Bacci M, Fiore C, Riezzo I, Turillazzi E, Fineschi V. Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(10):19831-19845.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Neri, Margherita; Panata, Laura; Bacci, Mauro; Fiore, Carmela; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Fineschi, Vittorio. 2013. "Cytokines, Chaperones and Neuroinflammatory Responses in Heroin-Related Death: What Can We Learn from Different Patterns of Cellular Expression?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 10: 19831-19845.

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