Next Article in Journal
Quantitative Profiling of DNA Damage and Apoptotic Pathways in UV Damaged Cells Using PTMScan Direct
Next Article in Special Issue
Overlapping ATP2C1 and ASTE1 Genes in Human Genome: Implications for SPCA1 Expression?
Previous Article in Journal
Role of Carnitine Acetyl Transferase in Regulation of Nitric Oxide Signaling in Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatial Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling by Endocytosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 273-285; doi:10.3390/ijms14010273
Article

Antitumor Effects of Rapamycin in Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Inducing Apoptosis and Autophagy

1,†,* , 2,†
,
1,†
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
 and
3,*
1 Department of Oncology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China 2 Department of Nephrology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China 3 Department of Pharmacology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 2 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [843 KB, 19 June 2014; original version 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Rapamycin (Rapa), an inhibitor of mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), is an immunosuppressive agent that has anti-proliferative effects on some tumors. This study aims to investigate the effects of Rapa suppressing proliferation of pancreatic carcinoma PC-2 cells in vitro and its molecular mechanism involved in antitumor activities. MTT assays showed that the inhibition of proliferation of PC-2 cells in vitro was in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By using transmission electron microscopy, apoptosis bodies and formation of abundant autophagic vacuoles were observed in PC-2 cells after Rapa treatment. Flow cytometry assays also showed Rapa had a positive effect on apoptosis. MDC staining showed that the fluorescent density was higher and the number of MDC-labeled particles in PC-2 cells was greater in the Rapa treatment group than in the control group. RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of p53, Bax and Beclin 1 were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Beclin 1 was involved in Rapa induced autophagy and Rapa induced apoptosis as well as p53 up-regulation in PC-2 cells. The results demonstrated that Rapa could effectively inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and autophagy in PC-2 cells.
Keywords: pancreatic carcinoma; rapamycin; mTOR; anti-tumor; apoptosis; autophagy pancreatic carcinoma; rapamycin; mTOR; anti-tumor; apoptosis; autophagy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Dai, Z.-J.; Gao, J.; Ma, X.-B.; Kang, H.-F.; Wang, B.-F.; Lu, W.-F.; Lin, S.; Wang, X.-J.; Wu, W.-Y. Antitumor Effects of Rapamycin in Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Inducing Apoptosis and Autophagy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 273-285.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert