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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 12113-12129; doi:10.3390/ijms130912113
Article

Gelam Honey Scavenges Peroxynitrite During the Immune Response

1,* , 1
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 and 3
Received: 23 July 2012; in revised form: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 9 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract: Monocytes and macrophages are part of the first-line defense against bacterial, fungal, and viral infections during host immune responses; they express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and their reaction product peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death. Honey, in addition to its well-known sweetening properties, is a natural antioxidant that has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. We examined the ability of Gelam honey, derived from the Gelam tree (Melaleuca spp.), to scavenge peroxynitrite during immune responses mounted in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ (LPS/IFN-γ) and in LPS-treated rats. Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production—similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). Furthermore, honey, but not 1400W, inhibited peroxynitrite production from the synthetic substrate 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine 123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine 123. Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats. Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.
Keywords: inflammation; honey; nitric oxide; peroxynitrite; macrophage inflammation; honey; nitric oxide; peroxynitrite; macrophage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kassim, M.; Mansor, M.; Suhaimi, A.; Ong, G.; Yusoff, K.M. Gelam Honey Scavenges Peroxynitrite During the Immune Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 12113-12129.

AMA Style

Kassim M, Mansor M, Suhaimi A, Ong G, Yusoff KM. Gelam Honey Scavenges Peroxynitrite During the Immune Response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):12113-12129.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kassim, Mustafa; Mansor, Marzida; Suhaimi, Anwar; Ong, Gracie; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd. 2012. "Gelam Honey Scavenges Peroxynitrite During the Immune Response." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 12113-12129.



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