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The Emerging Roles of ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes in Nucleotide Excision Repair
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2012; in revised form: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 31 August 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Abstract: DNA repair in eukaryotic cells takes place in the context of chromatin, where DNA, including damaged DNA, is tightly packed into nucleosomes and higher order chromatin structures. Chromatin intrinsically restricts accessibility of DNA repair proteins to the damaged DNA and impacts upon the overall rate of DNA repair. Chromatin is highly responsive to DNA damage and undergoes specific remodeling to facilitate DNA repair. How damaged DNA is accessed, repaired and restored to the original chromatin state, and how chromatin remodeling coordinates these processes in vivo, remains largely unknown. ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers (ACRs) are the master regulators of chromatin structure and dynamics. Conserved from yeast to humans, ACRs utilize the energy of ATP to reorganize packing of chromatin and control DNA accessibility by sliding, ejecting or restructuring nucleosomes. Several studies have demonstrated that ATP-dependent remodeling activity of ACRs plays important roles in coordination of spatio-temporal steps of different DNA repair pathways in chromatin. This review focuses on the role of ACRs in regulation of various aspects of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in the context of chromatin. We discuss current understanding of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling by various subfamilies of remodelers and regulation of the NER pathway in vivo.
Keywords: DNA repair; DNA damage accessibility; nucleosome
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MDPI and ACS Style
Czaja, W.; Mao, P.; Smerdon, M.J. The Emerging Roles of ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes in Nucleotide Excision Repair. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11954-11973.
Czaja W, Mao P, Smerdon MJ. The Emerging Roles of ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes in Nucleotide Excision Repair. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):11954-11973.
Czaja, Wioletta; Mao, Peng; Smerdon, Michael J. 2012. "The Emerging Roles of ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes in Nucleotide Excision Repair." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 11954-11973.