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Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage
Department of Agri-Food Industry, Food & Nutrition, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (ESALQ/USP), University of São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias 11, P.O. Box 9, CEP, Piracicaba 13418-900, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2012; in revised form: 18 August 2012 / Accepted: 18 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Abstract: Peanut samples were irradiated (0.0, 5.2, 7.2 or 10.0 kGy), stored for a year (room temperature) and examined every three months. Mycotoxic fungi (MF) were detected in non-irradiated blanched peanuts. A dose of 5.2 kGy was found suitable to prevent MF growth in blanched samples. No MF was detected in in-shell peanuts, with or without irradiation. The colors of the control in-shell and blanched samples were, respectively, 44.72 and 60.21 (L *); 25.20 and 20.38 (Chroma); 53.05 and 86.46 (°Hue). The water activities (Aw) were 0.673 and 0.425. The corresponding fatty acids were 13.33% and 12.14% (C16:0), 44.94% and 44.92% (C18:1, ω9) and 37.10% and 37.63% (C18:2, ω6). The total phenolics (TP) were 4.62 and 2.52 mg GAE/g, with antioxidant activities (AA) of 16.97 and 10.36 μmol TEAC/g. Storage time negatively correlated with Aw (in-shell peanuts) or L *, linoleic acid, TP and AA (in-shell and blanched peanuts) but positively correlated with Aw (blanched peanuts), and with oleic acid (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation positively correlated with antioxidant activity (blanched peanuts). No correlation was found between irradiation and AA (in-shell samples) or fatty acids and TP (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation protected against MF and retained both the polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols in the samples.
Keywords: gamma radiation; storage; mycotoxic fungi; color; water activity; nutraceuticals; polyunsaturated fatty acids; polyphenols; antioxidant properties
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de Camargo, A.C.; de Souza Vieira, T.M.F.; Regitano-d’Arce, M.A.B.; Alencar, S.M.; Calori-Domingues, M.A.; Fillet Spoto, M.H.; Canniatti-Brazaca, S.G. Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10935-10958.
de Camargo AC, de Souza Vieira TMF, Regitano-d’Arce MAB, Alencar SM, Calori-Domingues MA, Fillet Spoto MH, Canniatti-Brazaca SG. Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(9):10935-10958.
de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-d’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Fillet Spoto, Marta Helena; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin. 2012. "Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 9: 10935-10958.