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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(9), 10935-10958; doi:10.3390/ijms130910935
Article

Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage

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Department of Agri-Food Industry, Food & Nutrition, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (ESALQ/USP), University of São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias 11, P.O. Box 9, CEP, Piracicaba 13418-900, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2012 / Revised: 18 August 2012 / Accepted: 18 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

Peanut samples were irradiated (0.0, 5.2, 7.2 or 10.0 kGy), stored for a year (room temperature) and examined every three months. Mycotoxic fungi (MF) were detected in non-irradiated blanched peanuts. A dose of 5.2 kGy was found suitable to prevent MF growth in blanched samples. No MF was detected in in-shell peanuts, with or without irradiation. The colors of the control in-shell and blanched samples were, respectively, 44.72 and 60.21 (L *); 25.20 and 20.38 (Chroma); 53.05 and 86.46 (°Hue). The water activities (Aw) were 0.673 and 0.425. The corresponding fatty acids were 13.33% and 12.14% (C16:0), 44.94% and 44.92% (C18:1, ω9) and 37.10% and 37.63% (C18:2, ω6). The total phenolics (TP) were 4.62 and 2.52 mg GAE/g, with antioxidant activities (AA) of 16.97 and 10.36 μmol TEAC/g. Storage time negatively correlated with Aw (in-shell peanuts) or L *, linoleic acid, TP and AA (in-shell and blanched peanuts) but positively correlated with Aw (blanched peanuts), and with oleic acid (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation positively correlated with antioxidant activity (blanched peanuts). No correlation was found between irradiation and AA (in-shell samples) or fatty acids and TP (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation protected against MF and retained both the polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols in the samples.
Keywords: gamma radiation; storage; mycotoxic fungi; color; water activity; nutraceuticals; polyunsaturated fatty acids; polyphenols; antioxidant properties gamma radiation; storage; mycotoxic fungi; color; water activity; nutraceuticals; polyunsaturated fatty acids; polyphenols; antioxidant properties
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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de Camargo, A.C.; de Souza Vieira, T.M.F.; Regitano-d’Arce, M.A.B.; Alencar, S.M.; Calori-Domingues, M.A.; Fillet Spoto, M.H.; Canniatti-Brazaca, S.G. Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10935-10958.

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