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miR-338-3p Is Down-Regulated by Hepatitis B Virus X and Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Targeting the 3′-UTR Region of CyclinD1
Department of Infectious Disease, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
The Second Hospital of Nanjing, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210000, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2012; in revised form: 26 May 2012 / Accepted: 28 June 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is recognized as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBx regulates microRNA expression, including down-regulating miR-338-3p in LO2 cells. Here, we investigated miR-338-3p function in HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. In 23 HBV-infected HCC clinical patient tumor and adjacent non-tumor control tissues, 17 and 19 tumors expressed HBx mRNA and protein, respectively. When considered as a group, HBV-infected HCC tumors had lower miR-338-3p expression than controls; however, miR-338-3p was only significantly down-regulated in HBx-positive tumors, indicating that HBx inversely correlated with miR-338-3p. Functional characterization of miR-338-3p indicated that miR-338-3p mimics inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase as assessed by EdU and cell cycle assays in HBx-expressing LO2 cells. CyclinD1, containing two putative miR-338-3p targets, was confirmed as a direct target using 3′-UTR luciferase reporter assays from cells transfected with mutated binding sites. Mutating the 2397–2403 nt binding site conferred the greatest resistance to miR-338-3p suppression of CyclinD1, indicating that miR-338-3p suppresses CyclinD1 at this site. Overall, this study demonstrates that miR-338-3p inhibits proliferation by regulating CyclinD1, and HBx down-regulates miR-338-3p in HCC. This newly identified miR-338-3p/CyclinD1 interaction provides novel insights into HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis and may facilitate therapeutic development against HCC.
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; hepatitis B virus X protein; miR-338-3p; CyclinD1; cell proliferation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Fu, X.; Tan, D.; Hou, Z.; Hu, Z.; Liu, G. miR-338-3p Is Down-Regulated by Hepatitis B Virus X and Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Targeting the 3′-UTR Region of CyclinD1. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 8514-8539.
Fu X, Tan D, Hou Z, Hu Z, Liu G. miR-338-3p Is Down-Regulated by Hepatitis B Virus X and Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Targeting the 3′-UTR Region of CyclinD1. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(7):8514-8539.
Fu, Xiaoyu; Tan, Deming; Hou, Zhouhua; Hu, Zhiliang; Liu, Guozhen. 2012. "miR-338-3p Is Down-Regulated by Hepatitis B Virus X and Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Targeting the 3′-UTR Region of CyclinD1." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 7: 8514-8539.