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Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Marine Sponges in the China Seas
State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2012; in revised form: 27 April 2012 / Accepted: 7 May 2012 / Published: 16 May 2012
Abstract: The diversity and secondary metabolite potential of culturable actinomycetes associated with eight different marine sponges collected from the South China Sea and the Yellow sea were investigated. A total of 327 strains were isolated and 108 representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. Ten families and 13 genera of Actinomycetales were detected, among which five genera represent first records isolated from marine sponges. Oligotrophic medium M5 (water agar) proved to be efficient for selective isolation, and “Micromonospora–Streptomyces” was proposed as the major distribution group of sponge-associated actinomycetes from the China Seas. Ten isolates are likely to represent novel species. Sponge Hymeniacidon perleve was found to contain the highest genus diversity (seven genera) of actinomycetes. Housekeeping gene phylogenetic analyses of the isolates indicated one ubiquitous Micromonospora species, one unique Streptomyces species and one unique Verrucosispora phylogroup. Of the isolates, 27.5% displayed antimicrobial activity, and 91% contained polyketide synthase and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes, indicating that these isolates had a high potential to produce secondary metabolites. The isolates from sponge Axinella sp. contained the highest presence of both antimicrobial activity and NRPS genes, while those from isolation medium DNBA showed the highest presence of antimicrobial activity and PKS I genes.
Keywords: actinomycetes; marine sponge; diversity; biosynthetic potential; antimicrobial; PKS; NRPS; phylogenetic analysis
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Xi, L.; Ruan, J.; Huang, Y. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Marine Sponges in the China Seas. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 5917-5932.
Xi L, Ruan J, Huang Y. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Marine Sponges in the China Seas. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(5):5917-5932.
Xi, Lijun; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying. 2012. "Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Actinomycetes Associated with Marine Sponges in the China Seas." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 5: 5917-5932.