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Neurotrophic Effect of Citrus Auraptene: Neuritogenic Activity in PC12 Cells
Department of Pharmaceutical Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, 4-2 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 March 2012; in revised form: 9 April 2012 / Accepted: 23 April 2012 / Published: 27 April 2012
Abstract: The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) leads to a number of cellular changes associated with the development of long-term memory. Using cultured cortical neurons, we previously showed that the n-hexane extract prepared from the peels of Citrus grandis (Kawachi bankan) induces the activation of ERK1/2 and that one of the compounds with this ability in the extract is 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a Citrus polymethoxyflavone. In fact, we found that HMF has the ability to rescue mice from drug-induced learning impairment. This hexane extract contains auraptene (AUR), a coumarin derivative with a monoterpene unit, together with HMF. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of AUR in vitro. Our results show that 1) AUR had the ability to induce the activation of ERK1/2 in not only cortical neurons but also the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells), which is a model system for studies on neuronal proliferation and differentiation; and 2) AUR had the ability to promote neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells.
Keywords: auraptene; ERK1/2; PC12 cells; neurons; Citrus grandis; neurite outgrowth
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Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Okuyama, S.; Nakajima, M. Neurotrophic Effect of Citrus Auraptene: Neuritogenic Activity in PC12 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 5338-5347.
Furukawa Y, Watanabe S, Okuyama S, Nakajima M. Neurotrophic Effect of Citrus Auraptene: Neuritogenic Activity in PC12 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(5):5338-5347.
Furukawa, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Sono; Okuyama, Satoshi; Nakajima, Mitsunari. 2012. "Neurotrophic Effect of Citrus Auraptene: Neuritogenic Activity in PC12 Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 5: 5338-5347.