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Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark
State Engineering Laboratory for Bio-Resource Eco-Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2012; in revised form: 23 March 2012 / Accepted: 20 April 2012 / Published: 24 April 2012
Abstract: Ionic liquid based, microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) was successfully applied to the extraction of proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini bark. In this work, in order to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction process, a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction yield, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the ILMAE procedure for the proanthocyanidins was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the proanthocyanidins was obtained. Relative to other methods, the proposed approach provided higher extraction yield and lower energy consumption. The Larix gmelini bark samples before and after extraction were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ILMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.
Keywords: ionic liquid; microwave-assisted extraction; proanthocyanidins; Larix gmelini bark
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MDPI and ACS Style
Yang, L.; Sun, X.; Yang, F.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, L.; Zu, Y. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 5163-5178.
Yang L, Sun X, Yang F, Zhao C, Zhang L, Zu Y. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4):5163-5178.
Yang, Lei; Sun, Xiaowei; Yang, Fengjian; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zu, Yuangang. 2012. "Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 4: 5163-5178.