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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(4), 5074-5097; doi:10.3390/ijms13045074

Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

1
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, 154 Rama I Rd, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Department of Clinical Microscopy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, 154 Rama I Rd, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2012 / Revised: 17 March 2012 / Accepted: 20 March 2012 / Published: 23 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; glutamate; amyloid-β; neuron degeneration; oxidative stress; herbal medicine Alzheimer’s disease; glutamate; amyloid-β; neuron degeneration; oxidative stress; herbal medicine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brimson, J.M.; Brimson, S.J.; Brimson, C.A.; Rakkhitawatthana, V.; Tencomnao, T. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 5074-5097.

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