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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(4), 5074-5097; doi:10.3390/ijms13045074
Article

Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

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Received: 20 January 2012; in revised form: 17 March 2012 / Accepted: 20 March 2012 / Published: 23 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract: The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; glutamate; amyloid-β; neuron degeneration; oxidative stress; herbal medicine Alzheimer’s disease; glutamate; amyloid-β; neuron degeneration; oxidative stress; herbal medicine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brimson, J.M.; Brimson, S.J.; Brimson, C.A.; Rakkhitawatthana, V.; Tencomnao, T. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 5074-5097.

AMA Style

Brimson JM, Brimson SJ, Brimson CA, Rakkhitawatthana V, Tencomnao T. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4):5074-5097.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin. 2012. "Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 4: 5074-5097.


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