Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(4), 4949-4967; doi:10.3390/ijms13044949
Article

Mycoflora and Ochratoxin A Control in Wheat Grain Using Natural Extracts Obtained from Wine Industry By-Products

1email, 1,* email and 2email
Received: 20 March 2012; in revised form: 9 April 2012 / Accepted: 13 April 2012 / Published: 19 April 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some natural extracts obtained from grape pomace (GPE) and grape seeds (GSE) as compared to a synthetic food, antioxidant-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in order to control fungal population and ochratoxin A (OTA) production in naturally contaminated wheat. The results showed that the addition of these extracts was efficient with OTA content decreasing. On treatment with these extracts the loss of OTA content after 14 days was in the range 7.8–28.3% relative to the control sample, but increased up to 26.48–37% after 28 days. The highest loss in OTA content was recorded for treatment with GPE at the 500 ppm level. Regarding the fungal development, the obtained results show that the total fungal populations were significantly reduced by using natural extracts. The most efficient extract was GPE. Both BHT and GPE inhibit the growth of Penicillium verrrucosum, for all doses, but less with Aspergillus genera. GPE affects the growth of other types of moulds such as Rhizopus microsporus, Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria infectoria and Cladosporium herbarum. Our data suggested that GPE and GSE are able to provide fungicidal and fungistatic protection and to control the OTA accumulation in wheat, at least in a similar manner to BHT.
Keywords: ochratoxin A; butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); grape seed extract; grape pomace extract; fungus genera
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alexa, E.; Poiana, M.-A.; Sumalan, R.-M. Mycoflora and Ochratoxin A Control in Wheat Grain Using Natural Extracts Obtained from Wine Industry By-Products. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 4949-4967.

AMA Style

Alexa E, Poiana M-A, Sumalan R-M. Mycoflora and Ochratoxin A Control in Wheat Grain Using Natural Extracts Obtained from Wine Industry By-Products. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4):4949-4967.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alexa, Ersilia; Poiana, Mariana-Atena; Sumalan, Renata-Maria. 2012. "Mycoflora and Ochratoxin A Control in Wheat Grain Using Natural Extracts Obtained from Wine Industry By-Products." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 4: 4949-4967.

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