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Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation
Group of Intensification of Transfer Phenomena on Eco-Processes for Industry, Laboratory of Engineering Science for Environment/FRE 3474 CNRS, Pole Science and Technology, University of La Rochelle, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle cedex 01, France
Laboratory of Research on Bio-active Products and Valorization of Biomasse, Ecole Normale Supérieure, vieux-Kouba 16050, Alger, Algeria
Group of Research on Eco-Extraction of Natural products GREEN, Laboratory of Security and Quality of Vegetal Products/UMR A 408 INRA, Université d’Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse UAPV, F-84029 Avignon, France
ABCAR-DIC Process, 40, rue Chef de Baie 17000 La Rochelle, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2012; in revised form: 3 March 2012 / Accepted: 16 March 2012 / Published: 12 April 2012
Abstract: Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.
Keywords: Myrtus communis L.; essential oils; solvent free microwave extraction SFME; hydrodistillation; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity
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Berka-Zougali, B.; Ferhat, M.-A.; Hassani, A.; Chemat, F.; Allaf, K.S. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 4673-4695.
Berka-Zougali B, Ferhat M-A, Hassani A, Chemat F, Allaf KS. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4):4673-4695.
Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S. 2012. "Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 4: 4673-4695.