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Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha-40100, Pakistan
Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
Institute of Tropical Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia-43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2012; in revised form: 4 March 2012 / Accepted: 19 March 2012 / Published: 11 April 2012
Abstract: The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L). Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice) ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg) linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg) and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg). The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis), with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg), campesterol (116–242 mg/kg), ∆5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg) were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data), identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods.
Keywords: bioactives; Basmati rice; phytosterols; tocopherols; oryzanol; HPLC; GC-MS
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Zubair, M.; Anwar, F.; Ashraf, M.; Uddin, M.K. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 4608-4622.
Zubair M, Anwar F, Ashraf M, Uddin MK. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4):4608-4622.
Zubair, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Uddin, Md. Kamal. 2012. "Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 4: 4608-4622.