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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(4), 4523-4544; doi:10.3390/ijms13044523

Extreme Multiple Reticulate Origins of the Pteris cadieri Complex (Pteridaceae)

3,*  and 1,*
1 Division of Botanical Garden, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei 10006, Taiwan 2 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China 3 Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2012 / Revised: 21 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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The Pteris cadieri complex displays extensive morphological variation and seems to have originated through hybridization. However, the members of this complex reproduce by apogamy, which usually limits genetic variation. To evaluate the hypotheses of hybrid origins, the pattern of evolution in this species complex is reconstructed. Multiple methodologies were used. Diploids, triploids, and tetraploids were identified by chromosome counts and flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA markers (cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase gene, PgiC) were used, together with chloroplast DNA markers (atpB-rbcL spacer and rbcL gene) to infer the biparental and maternal lineages of the Pteris cadieri complex. The three cpDNA haplotype groups and five PgiC alleles found in this study indicate that the evolution of the Pteris cadieri complex has been extremely reticulate. Up to 11 taxa belonging to eight morphs were identified. By comparing genetic variation in the Pteris cadieri in two independent areas, Hainan and Taiwan, we inferred that hybridization has occurred independently in different areas. Furthermore, we found evidence for phenological divergence (evergreen and deciduous) within Taiwan. We propose that the Pteris cadieri complex originated from different genetic lineages through multiple hybridizations in different geographical areas, leading to its present morphological diversity.
Keywords: apogamy; flow cytometry; hybridization; PgiC; polyploidy; Pteris; reticulate evolution; species complex apogamy; flow cytometry; hybridization; PgiC; polyploidy; Pteris; reticulate evolution; species complex
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Chao, Y.-S.; Dong, S.-Y.; Chiang, Y.-C.; Liu, H.-Y.; Chiou, W.-L. Extreme Multiple Reticulate Origins of the Pteris cadieri Complex (Pteridaceae). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 4523-4544.

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