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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(4), 4523-4544; doi:10.3390/ijms13044523
Article

Extreme Multiple Reticulate Origins of the Pteris cadieri Complex (Pteridaceae)

1,†
, 2,†
, 3,†
, 3,*  and 1,*
Received: 3 February 2012; in revised form: 21 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract: The Pteris cadieri complex displays extensive morphological variation and seems to have originated through hybridization. However, the members of this complex reproduce by apogamy, which usually limits genetic variation. To evaluate the hypotheses of hybrid origins, the pattern of evolution in this species complex is reconstructed. Multiple methodologies were used. Diploids, triploids, and tetraploids were identified by chromosome counts and flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA markers (cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase gene, PgiC) were used, together with chloroplast DNA markers (atpB-rbcL spacer and rbcL gene) to infer the biparental and maternal lineages of the Pteris cadieri complex. The three cpDNA haplotype groups and five PgiC alleles found in this study indicate that the evolution of the Pteris cadieri complex has been extremely reticulate. Up to 11 taxa belonging to eight morphs were identified. By comparing genetic variation in the Pteris cadieri in two independent areas, Hainan and Taiwan, we inferred that hybridization has occurred independently in different areas. Furthermore, we found evidence for phenological divergence (evergreen and deciduous) within Taiwan. We propose that the Pteris cadieri complex originated from different genetic lineages through multiple hybridizations in different geographical areas, leading to its present morphological diversity.
Keywords: apogamy; flow cytometry; hybridization; PgiC; polyploidy; Pteris; reticulate evolution; species complex apogamy; flow cytometry; hybridization; PgiC; polyploidy; Pteris; reticulate evolution; species complex
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chao, Y.-S.; Dong, S.-Y.; Chiang, Y.-C.; Liu, H.-Y.; Chiou, W.-L. Extreme Multiple Reticulate Origins of the Pteris cadieri Complex (Pteridaceae). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 4523-4544.

AMA Style

Chao Y-S, Dong S-Y, Chiang Y-C, Liu H-Y, Chiou W-L. Extreme Multiple Reticulate Origins of the Pteris cadieri Complex (Pteridaceae). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4):4523-4544.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chao, Yi-Shan; Dong, Shi-Yong; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Ho-Yih; Chiou, Wen-Liang. 2012. "Extreme Multiple Reticulate Origins of the Pteris cadieri Complex (Pteridaceae)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 4: 4523-4544.



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