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Carotenoids, Fatty Acid Composition and Heat Stability of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Extracted-Oleoresins
Unit of Lecce (ISPA-CNR), Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, Via Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2012; in revised form: 13 March 2012 / Accepted: 19 March 2012 / Published: 30 March 2012
Abstract: The risk of chronic diseases has been shown to be inversely related to tomato intake and the lycopene levels in serum and tissue. Cis-isomers represent approximately 50%–80% of serum lycopene, while dietary lycopene maintains the isomeric ratio present in the plant sources with about 95% of all-trans-lycopene. Supercritical CO2 extraction (S-CO2) has been extensively developed to extract lycopene from tomato and tomato processing wastes, for food or pharmaceutical industries, also by using additional plant sources as co-matrices. We compared two S-CO2-extracted oleoresins (from tomato and tomato/hazelnut matrices), which showed an oil-solid bi-phasic appearance, a higher cis-lycopene content, and enhanced antioxidant ability compared with the traditional solvent extracts. Heat-treating, in the range of 60–100 °C, led to changes in the lycopene isomeric composition and to enhanced antioxidant activity in both types of oleoresins. The greater stability has been related to peculiar lycopene isomer composition and to the lipid environment. The results indicate these oleoresins are a good source of potentially healthful lycopene.
Keywords: tomato oleoresins; cis-, trans-lycopene; heat stability; antioxidant activity; hazelnut; supercritical-CO2 extraction; nutraceuticals
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Longo, C.; Leo, L.; Leone, A. Carotenoids, Fatty Acid Composition and Heat Stability of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Extracted-Oleoresins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 4233-4254.
Longo C, Leo L, Leone A. Carotenoids, Fatty Acid Composition and Heat Stability of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Extracted-Oleoresins. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(4):4233-4254.
Longo, Cristiano; Leo, Lucia; Leone, Antonella. 2012. "Carotenoids, Fatty Acid Composition and Heat Stability of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Extracted-Oleoresins." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 4: 4233-4254.