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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3527-3548; doi:10.3390/ijms13033527

Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes

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Received: 10 February 2012 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 7 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Transport)
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Abstract: Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.
Keywords: arsenic; antimony; aquaglyceroporins; Acr3 antiporter; ABC transporters; glucose transporters; glutathione; phytochelatin arsenic; antimony; aquaglyceroporins; Acr3 antiporter; ABC transporters; glucose transporters; glutathione; phytochelatin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, E.; Wawrzycka, D.; Wysocki, R. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3527-3548.

AMA Style

Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska E, Wawrzycka D, Wysocki R. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(3):3527-3548.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert. 2012. "Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 3: 3527-3548.

Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert