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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3444-3457; doi:10.3390/ijms13033444
Article

Extracts of Phenolic Compounds from Seeds of Three Wild Grapevines—Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activities and the Content of Phenolic Compounds

1
,
1
,
2
 and
2,*
1 Department of Biochemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego Street 1A, 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland 2 Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima Street 10, 10-747 Olsztyn, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2011 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 13 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
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Abstract

Phenolic compounds were extracted from three wild grapevine species: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds—while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent.
Keywords: grapevine seeds; catechins; phenolic acids; redycing power; DPPH radical grapevine seeds; catechins; phenolic acids; redycing power; DPPH radical
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Weidner, S.; Powałka, A.; Karamać, M.; Amarowicz, R. Extracts of Phenolic Compounds from Seeds of Three Wild Grapevines—Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activities and the Content of Phenolic Compounds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 3444-3457.

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