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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 2810-2826; doi:10.3390/ijms13032810
Article

Variation in Stability of Endogenous Reference Genes in Fallopian Tubes and Endometrium from Healthy and Ectopic Pregnant Women

1
,
2
,
1
,
1
 and
1,*
1 Endocannabinoid Research Group, Reproductive Science Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE2 7LX, UK 2 Systems Toxicology, MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, LE1 9HN, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2012 / Revised: 10 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
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Abstract

RT-qPCR is commonly employed in gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy. Most use RN18S1, β-actin or GAPDH as internal controls without validation of their suitability as reference genes. A systematic study of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy is lacking. The aims of this study were therefore to evaluate the stability of 12 reference genes and suggest those that are stable for use as internal control genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from ectopic pregnancy and healthy non-pregnant controls. Analysis of the results showed that the genes consistently ranked in the top six by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, were UBC, GAPDH, CYC1 and EIF4A2 (fallopian tubes) and UBC and ATP5B (endometrium). mRNA expression of NAPE-PLD as a test gene of interest varied between the groups depending on which of the 12 reference genes was used as internal controls. This study demonstrates that arbitrary selection of reference genes for normalisation in RT-qPCR studies in ectopic pregnancy without validation, risk producing inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged.
Keywords: ectopic pregnancy; fallopian tubes; endometrium; reference genes; geNorm; NormFinder; quantitative real time PCR; NAPE-PLD ectopic pregnancy; fallopian tubes; endometrium; reference genes; geNorm; NormFinder; quantitative real time PCR; NAPE-PLD
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Gebeh, A.K.; Marczylo, E.L.; Amoako, A.A.; Willets, J.M.; Konje, J.C. Variation in Stability of Endogenous Reference Genes in Fallopian Tubes and Endometrium from Healthy and Ectopic Pregnant Women. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 2810-2826.

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