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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2521-2534; doi:10.3390/ijms13022521
Article

Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Ligustrum vulgare L. as an Individual Treatment and in Combination with Palladium Complex

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Received: 27 December 2011; in revised form: 23 January 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the growth inhibitory effects of methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of L. vulgare on HCT-116 cells over different time periods and their synergistic effect with a Pd(apox) complex. The antiproliferative activity of plant extracts alone or in combination with the Pd(apox) complex was determined using MTT cell viability assay, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter of cytotoxicity. Results show that antiproliferative effects of L. vulgare extracts increase with extension of exposure time, with decreasing IC50 values, except for 72 h where the IC50 values for methanolic leaf extract were lower than for the fruit extract. The Pd(apox) complex alone had a weak antiproliferative effect, but combination with L. vulgare extracts caused stronger effects with lower IC50 values than with L. vulgare extracts alone. The type of cell death was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridin orange/ethidium bromide method. Treatments with plant extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HCT-116 cells and co-treatments with Pd(apox) complex caused higher levels of apoptotic cells than treatment with plant extracts alone. The results indicate that L. vulgare is a considerable source of natural bioactive substances with antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 cells and which have a substantial synergistic effect with the Pd(apox) complex.
Keywords: acridin orange/ethidium bromide assay; antiprolifertative activity; apoptosis; cotreatment; Ligustrum vulgare L.; MTT assay; palladium; time dependance acridin orange/ethidium bromide assay; antiprolifertative activity; apoptosis; cotreatment; Ligustrum vulgare L.; MTT assay; palladium; time dependance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ćurčić, M.G.; Stanković, M.S.; Mrkalić, E.M.; Matović, Z.D.; Banković, D.D.; Cvetković, D.M.; Đačić, D.S.; Marković, S.D. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Ligustrum vulgare L. as an Individual Treatment and in Combination with Palladium Complex. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 2521-2534.

AMA Style

Ćurčić MG, Stanković MS, Mrkalić EM, Matović ZD, Banković DD, Cvetković DM, Đačić DS, Marković SD. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Ligustrum vulgare L. as an Individual Treatment and in Combination with Palladium Complex. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(2):2521-2534.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ćurčić, Milena G.; Stanković, Milan S.; Mrkalić, Emina M.; Matović, Zoran D.; Banković, Dragić D.; Cvetković, Danijela M.; Đačić, Dragana S.; Marković, Snežana D. 2012. "Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Ligustrum vulgare L. as an Individual Treatment and in Combination with Palladium Complex." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 2: 2521-2534.


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