Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 1541-1560; doi:10.3390/ijms13021541
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Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

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Received: 12 December 2011; in revised form: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 19 January 2012 / Published: 2 February 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.
Keywords: biocides; antifouling; environment; aquaculture; resistance; antibiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guardiola, F.A.; Cuesta, A.; Meseguer, J.; Esteban, M.A. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 1541-1560.

AMA Style

Guardiola FA, Cuesta A, Meseguer J, Esteban MA. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(2):1541-1560.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles. 2012. "Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 2: 1541-1560.

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