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Facile Synthesis of Calcium Borate Nanoparticles and the Annealing Effect on Their Structure and Size
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Non-ionizing Radiation, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2012; in revised form: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Abstract: Calcium borate nanoparticles have been synthesized by a thermal treatment method via facile co-precipitation. Differences of annealing temperature and annealing time and their effects on crystal structure, particle size, size distribution and thermal stability of nanoparticles were investigated. The formation of calcium borate compound was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Thermogravimetry (TGA). The XRD patterns revealed that the co-precipitated samples annealed at 700 °C for 3 h annealing time formed an amorphous structure and the transformation into a crystalline structure only occurred after 5 h annealing time. It was found that the samples annealed at 900 °C are mostly metaborate (CaB2O4) nanoparticles and tetraborate (CaB4O7) nanoparticles only observed at 970 °C, which was confirmed by FTIR. The TEM images indicated that with increasing the annealing time and temperature, the average particle size increases. TGA analysis confirmed the thermal stability of the annealed samples at higher temperatures.
Keywords: calcium borate; nanoparticles; co-precipitation; annealing time; annealing temperature
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Erfani, M.; Saion, E.; Soltani, N.; Hashim, M.; Abdullah, W.S.B.W.; Navasery, M. Facile Synthesis of Calcium Borate Nanoparticles and the Annealing Effect on Their Structure and Size. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 14434-14445.
Erfani M, Saion E, Soltani N, Hashim M, Abdullah WSBW, Navasery M. Facile Synthesis of Calcium Borate Nanoparticles and the Annealing Effect on Their Structure and Size. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):14434-14445.
Erfani, Maryam; Saion, Elias; Soltani, Nayereh; Hashim, Mansor; Abdullah, Wan S.B.W.; Navasery, Manizheh. 2012. "Facile Synthesis of Calcium Borate Nanoparticles and the Annealing Effect on Their Structure and Size." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 14434-14445.