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MicroRNAs as Active Players in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis
Department of Pathophysiology and transplantation, “Dino Ferrari” Center, University of Milan, IRCCS Foundation Cà Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2012; in revised form: 27 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 October 2012 / Published: 15 October 2012
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered group of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They are highly expressed in cells of the immune system, as well as in the central nervous system, and they are deregulated in various neurological disorders. Emerging evidence underlines an involvement of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A number of miRNAs have been found to be dysregulated in blood cells from MS patients, in brain lesions, as well as in biological fluids such as serum and plasma. Despite miRNA altered expression likely showing a high tissue specificity, some profile similarities could be observed for certain miRNAs such as miR-326—such as upregulation in both active lesions and blood—though not for others such as miR-323, which demonstrated upregulation in whole blood, active brain lesions, and T-reg cells, but not in the serum of MS patients. In this review, the possible role of miRNAs in MS pathogenesis will be discussed according to all the available literature, with a particular emphasis on the possibility of considering extracellular miRNAs as a new source for both biomarker identification and therapeutic target discovery.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; microRNA; immune system; biomarker; central nervous system
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Fenoglio, C.; Ridolfi, E.; Galimberti, D.; Scarpini, E. MicroRNAs as Active Players in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 13227-13239.
Fenoglio C, Ridolfi E, Galimberti D, Scarpini E. MicroRNAs as Active Players in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(10):13227-13239.
Fenoglio, Chiara; Ridolfi, Elisa; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio. 2012. "MicroRNAs as Active Players in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 10: 13227-13239.