Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(10), 12336-12348; doi:10.3390/ijms131012336
Article

Cytotoxicity of Phenol Red in Toxicity Assays for Carbon Nanoparticles

1,* , 1
, 2
, 3
, 1, 1,* , 1
 and 1
Received: 16 August 2012; in revised form: 18 September 2012 / Accepted: 19 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2012)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [852 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: To explore the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) in nanotoxicity assays, the adsorption of phenol red (a pH indicator for culture medium) by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and three kinds of carbon blacks (CBs) with nanosize, and its effects on cytotoxicity were studied. Results indicated that the phenol red adsorbed and delivered into cells by CBs was responsible for the toxicity to Hela cells in the medium without serum. The cellular uptake of phenol red was verified using 125I-labeling techniques. The size-dependent cytotoxicity of CBs was found to closely correlate to adsorption of phenol red, cellular uptake of phenol red-CB complexes and the amount of phenol red delivered into the cells by CBs. Although the CBs were either nontoxic or slightly toxic, as vehicles of phenol red, they played an essential role in the cytotoxicity induced by phenol red. However, MWNTs showed an intrinsic cytotoxicity independent of phenol red. The implications associated with these findings are discussed.
Keywords: carbon blacks (CBs); multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs); cytotoxicity; phenol red; adsorption; 125I-labeling carbon blacks (CBs); multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs); cytotoxicity; phenol red; adsorption; 125I-labeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, J.; Zhao, Q.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Fan, C.; Huang, Q. Cytotoxicity of Phenol Red in Toxicity Assays for Carbon Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 12336-12348.

AMA Style

Zhu Y, Zhang X, Zhu J, Zhao Q, Li Y, Li W, Fan C, Huang Q. Cytotoxicity of Phenol Red in Toxicity Assays for Carbon Nanoparticles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(10):12336-12348.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Jianhua; Zhao, Qunfen; Li, Yuguo; Li, Wenxin; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Qing. 2012. "Cytotoxicity of Phenol Red in Toxicity Assays for Carbon Nanoparticles." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 10: 12336-12348.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert