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On the Several Molecules and Nanostructures of Water
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Received: 30 September 2011; in revised form: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Abstract: This paper investigates the water molecule from a variety of viewpoints. Water can involve different isotopes of Hydrogen and Oxygen, it can form differently shaped isomer molecules, and, when frozen, it occupies space differently than most other substances do. The tool for conducting the investigation of all this is called ‘Algebraic Chemistry’. This tool is a quantitative model for predicting the energy budget for all sorts of changes between different ionization states of atoms that are involved in chemical reactions and in changes of physical state. The model is based on consistent patterns seen in empirical data about ionization potentials, together with rational scaling laws that can interpolate and extrapolate for situations where no data are available. The results of the investigation of the water molecule include comments, both positive and negative, about technologies involving heavy water, poly water, Brown’s gas, and cold fusion.
Keywords: Algebraic Chemistry; Brown’s gas; boiling; chemical bond; cold fusion; energy storage; freezing; ice; ionization potentials; melting; quantum chemistry; poly water; quantum mechanics; snow flakes; water chemistry
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Whitney, C.K. On the Several Molecules and Nanostructures of Water. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 1066-1094.
Whitney CK. On the Several Molecules and Nanostructures of Water. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(1):1066-1094.
Whitney, Cynthia Kolb. 2012. "On the Several Molecules and Nanostructures of Water." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 1: 1066-1094.