Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5471-5489; doi:10.3390/ijms12095471
Article

Chemical Structures of 4-Oxo-Flavonoids in Relation to Inhibition of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction

Received: 27 June 2011; in revised form: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 26 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be the initiation step of atherosclerosis (AS), and flavonoids may play an important role in AS prevention and therapy. Twenty-three flavonoids categorized into flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and flavanones, all with 4-oxo-pyronenucleus, were examined for what structural characteristics are required for the inhibitory effects on endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Human vascular endothelial cells EA.hy926 were pretreated with different 4-oxo-flavonoids for 2 hs, and then exposed to oxLDL for another 24 hs. Cell viability and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were measured, respectively. Then, correlation analysis and paired comparison were used to analyze the structure–activity relationships. Significant correlations were observed between the number of –OH moieties in total or in B-ring and the inhibitory effectson endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyl on B-ring, 3-hydroxyl on C-ring and 2,3-double bondwere correlated closely to the inhibitory effects of flavonolson cell viability decrease and lipid peroxidation. 5,7-meta-dihydroxyl group on A-ring was crucial for the anti-inflammatory effects of flavones and isoflavones in endothelial cells. Moreover, the substituted position of B-ring on C3 rather than C2 was important for NO release. Additionally, hydroxylation at C6 position significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of 4-oxo-flavonoids on endothelial dysfunction. Our findings indicated that the effective agents in inhibiting endothelial dysfunction include myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, genistein and daidzein. Our work might provide some evidence for AS prevention and a strategy for the design of novel AS preventive agents.
Keywords: flavonoids; endothelial dysfunction; oxidized low-density lipoprotein; structure-activity analysis; atherosclerosis; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yi, L.; Jin, X.; Chen, C.-Y.; Fu, Y.-J.; Zhang, T.; Chang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, J.-D.; Zhang, Q.-Y.; Mi, M.-T. Chemical Structures of 4-Oxo-Flavonoids in Relation to Inhibition of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 5471-5489.

AMA Style

Yi L, Jin X, Chen C-Y, Fu Y-J, Zhang T, Chang H, Zhou Y, Zhu J-D, Zhang Q-Y, Mi M-T. Chemical Structures of 4-Oxo-Flavonoids in Relation to Inhibition of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(9):5471-5489.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yi, Long; Jin, Xin; Chen, Chun-Ye; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Ting; Chang, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Jun-Dong; Zhang, Qian-Yong; Mi, Man-Tian. 2011. "Chemical Structures of 4-Oxo-Flavonoids in Relation to Inhibition of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 9: 5471-5489.

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