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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5098-5134; doi:10.3390/ijms12085098

Alert-QSAR. Implications for Electrophilic Theory of Chemical Carcinogenesis

Laboratory of Computational and Structural Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Department, West University of Timişoara, Pestalozzi Street No.16, Timişoara, RO-300115, Romania
“Nicolas Georgescu-Roegen” Forming and Research Center of West University of Timişoara, 4th, Oituz Street, Timişoara, RO-300086, Romania
Institute of Chemistry Timişoara of the Romanian Academy, 24 Mihai Viteazul Bld., Timişoara, RO-300223, Romania
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 30 June 2011 / Accepted: 3 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in QSAR/QSPR Theory)


Given the modeling and predictive abilities of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) for genotoxic carcinogens or mutagens that directly affect DNA, the present research investigates structural alert (SA) intermediate-predicted correlations ASA of electrophilic molecular structures with observed carcinogenic potencies in rats (observed activity, A = Log[1/TD50], i.e., ASA=f(X1SA,X2SA,...)). The present method includes calculation of the recently developed residual correlation of the structural alert models, i.e., ARASA=f(A-ASA,X1SA,X2SA,...) . We propose a specific electrophilic ligand-receptor mechanism that combines electronegativity with chemical hardness-associated frontier principles, equality of ligand-reagent electronegativities and ligand maximum chemical hardness for highly diverse toxic molecules against specific receptors in rats. The observed carcinogenic activity is influenced by the induced SA-mutagenic intermediate effect, alongside Hansch indices such as hydrophobicity (LogP), polarizability (POL) and total energy (Etot), which account for molecular membrane diffusion, ionic deformation, and stericity, respectively. A possible QSAR mechanistic interpretation of mutagenicity as the first step in genotoxic carcinogenesis development is discussed using the structural alert chemoinformation and in full accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development QSAR guidance principles.
Keywords: genotoxic carcinogenesis; structural alerts; OECD principles; residual-QSAR; electronegativity and chemical hardness reactivity principles genotoxic carcinogenesis; structural alerts; OECD principles; residual-QSAR; electronegativity and chemical hardness reactivity principles

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Putz, M.V.; Ionaşcu, C.; Putz, A.-M.; Ostafe, V. Alert-QSAR. Implications for Electrophilic Theory of Chemical Carcinogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 5098-5134.

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