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In Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Properties of the Plant-Based Supplement Greens+
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E2, Canada
Integrative Care Centre of Toronto, 3600 Ellesmere Road, Unit 4, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 4Y8, Canada
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto & Calcium Research Laboratory, Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 1W8, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2011; in revised form: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 21 July 2011 / Published: 3 August 2011
Abstract: Dietary antioxidants play an important role against oxidation, an underlying mechanism in the incidence of chronic diseases. Greens+ is a commercially available preparation containing a variety of plant-derived ingredients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the methanolic extract of greens+ powder using in vitro and in vivo techniques. In vitro studies were conducted using a liposome model system to simulate biological cell membranes. Total antioxidant potential and polyphenol content of the herbal preparation was measured. For in vivo analysis, 10 healthy human subjects consumed either three or six teaspoons of greens+ per day for four weeks. Blood samples were analyzed at baseline and at the conclusion of the treatment period for total antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, protein, lipid and LDL oxidation, and the level of glutathione peroxidase. Results showed that greens+ supplementation was well tolerated and increased serum antioxidant potential at higher levels of intake in a dose-dependent manner. HPLC analysis showed the presence of quercetin, apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin in the supplement. Plasma analysis indicated the presence of kaempferol only. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in protein and lipid oxidation was observed. Based on its antioxidant properties, the results suggest that greens+ might play a role in reducing the risk of chronic diseases involving a burden of oxidative damage.
Keywords: dietary supplements; polyphenols; antioxidants; liposomes; herbal supplement; greens+; oxidative stress
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Rao, V.; Balachandran, B.; Shen, H.; Logan, A.; Rao, L. In Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Properties of the Plant-Based Supplement Greens+. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 4896-4908.
Rao V, Balachandran B, Shen H, Logan A, Rao L. In Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Properties of the Plant-Based Supplement Greens+. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(8):4896-4908.
Rao, Venket; Balachandran, Bashyam; Shen, Honglei; Logan, Alan; Rao, Leticia. 2011. "In Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Properties of the Plant-Based Supplement Greens+." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 8: 4896-4908.