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Synthesis of Brushite Particles in Reverse Microemulsions of the Biosurfactant Surfactin
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan
Taipei American School, 800 Chung Shan North Road, Section 6, Taipei 11152, Taiwan
Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Minhsiung, Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan
Department of Biotechnology, National Kaohsiung Normal University, No.62, Shenjhong Road, Yanchao Township, Kaohsiung County 82444, Taiwan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2011; in revised form: 10 May 2011 / Accepted: 2 June 2011 / Published: 9 June 2011
Abstract: In this study the “green chemistry” use of the biosurfactant surfactin for the synthesis of calcium phosphate using the reverse microemulsion technique was demonstrated. Calcium phosphates are bioactive materials that are a major constituent of human teeth and bone tissue. A reverse microemulsion technique with surfactin was used to produce nanocrystalline brushite particles. Structural diversity (analyzed by SEM and TEM) resulted from different water to surfactin ratios (W/S; 250, 500, 1000 and 40,000). The particle sizes were found to be in the 16–200 nm range. Morphological variety was observed in the as-synthesized microemulsions, which consisted of nanospheres (~16 nm in diameter) and needle-like (8–14 nm in diameter and 80–100 nm in length) noncalcinated particles. However, the calcinated products included nanospheres (50–200 nm in diameter), oval (~300 nm in diameter) and nanorod (200–400 nm in length) particles. FTIR and XRD analysis confirmed the formation of brushite nanoparticles in the as-synthesized products, while calcium pyrophosphate was produced after calcination. These results indicate that the reverse microemulsion technique using surfactin is a green process suitable for the synthesis of nanoparticles.
Keywords: biosurfactant; reverse microemulsion; brushite; surfactin; nanoparticle
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MDPI and ACS Style
Maity, J.P.; Lin, T.-J.; Cheng, H.-H.; Chen, C.-Y.; Reddy, A.S.; Atla, S.B.; Chang, Y.-F.; Chen, H.-R.; Chen, C.-C. Synthesis of Brushite Particles in Reverse Microemulsions of the Biosurfactant Surfactin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 3821-3830.
Maity JP, Lin T-J, Cheng H-H, Chen C-Y, Reddy AS, Atla SB, Chang Y-F, Chen H-R, Chen C-C. Synthesis of Brushite Particles in Reverse Microemulsions of the Biosurfactant Surfactin. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(6):3821-3830.
Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Lin, Tz-Jiun; Cheng, Henry Pai-Heng; Chen, Chien-Yen; Reddy, A. Satyanarayana; Atla, Shashi B.; Chang, Young-Fo; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng. 2011. "Synthesis of Brushite Particles in Reverse Microemulsions of the Biosurfactant Surfactin." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 6: 3821-3830.