Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(6), 3422-3431; doi:10.3390/ijms12063422
Article

Flavonoid Analyses and Antimicrobial Activity of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Fruit

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, University of Riau, Pekanbaru, Riau, Indonesia 3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 4 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2011; in revised form: 6 April 2011 / Accepted: 10 May 2011 / Published: 27 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract: Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl (Thymelaceae) is commonly known as ‘Crown of God’, ‘Mahkota Dewa’, and ‘Pau’. It originates from Papua Island, Indonesia and it grows in tropical areas. Empirically, it is potent in treating the hypertensive,diabetic, cancer and diuretic patients. It has a long history of ethnopharmacological usage, and the lack of information about its biological activities led us to investigate the possible biological activities by characterisation of flavonoids and antimicrobial activity of various part of P. macrocarpa against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed that kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, and rutin were the major flavonoids present in the pericarp while naringin and quercetin were found in the mesocarp and seed. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of different parts of P. macrocarpa fruit showed a weak ability to moderate antibacterial activity against pathogenic tested bacteria (inhibition range: 0.93–2.17 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/disc. The anti fungi activity was only found in seed extract against Aspergillus niger (1.87 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/well. From the results obtained, P. macrocarpa fruit could be considered as a natural antimicrobial source due to the presence of flavonoid compounds.
Keywords: P. macrocarpa; flavonoid; antimicrobial activity

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hendra, R.; Ahmad, S.; Sukari, A.; Shukor, M.Y.; Oskoueian, E. Flavonoid Analyses and Antimicrobial Activity of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Fruit. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 3422-3431.

AMA Style

Hendra R, Ahmad S, Sukari A, Shukor MY, Oskoueian E. Flavonoid Analyses and Antimicrobial Activity of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Fruit. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(6):3422-3431.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hendra, Rudi; Ahmad, Syahida; Sukari, Aspollah; Shukor, M. Yunus; Oskoueian, Ehsan. 2011. "Flavonoid Analyses and Antimicrobial Activity of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Fruit." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 6: 3422-3431.

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