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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(2), 1293-1305; doi:10.3390/ijms12021293

Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Optical Spectra of CdS Thin Films Deposited at Low Solution Concentrations by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) Technique

1
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2010 / Revised: 30 January 2011 / Accepted: 6 February 2011 / Published: 22 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
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Abstract

Two different concentrations of CdCl2 and (NH2)2CS were used to prepare CdS thin films, to be deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. CdCl2 (0.000312 M and 0.000625 M) was employed as a source of Cd2+ while (NH2)2CS (0.00125 M and 0.000625 M) for S2− at a constant bath temperature of 70 °C. Adhesion of the deposited films was found to be very good for all the solution concentrations of both reagents. The films were air-annealed at a temperature between 200 °C to 360 °C for one hour. The minimum thickness was observed to be 33.6 nm for film annealed at 320 °C. XRD analyses reveal that the films were cubic along with peaks of hexagonal phase for all film samples. The crystallite size of the films decreased from 41.4 nm to 7.4 nm with the increase of annealing temperature for the CdCl2 (0.000312 M). Optical energy band gap (Eg), Urbach energy (Eu) and absorption coefficient (α) have been calculated from the transmission spectral data. These parameters have been discussed as a function of annealing temperature and solution concentration. The best transmission (about 97%) was obtained for the air-annealed films at higher temperature at CdCl2 (0.000312 M).
Keywords: chemical bath deposition; cadmium sulphide; window layer; air-annealing chemical bath deposition; cadmium sulphide; window layer; air-annealing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rizwan, Z.; Zakaria, A.; Ghazali, M.S.M.; Jafari, A.; Din, F.U.; Zamiri, R. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Optical Spectra of CdS Thin Films Deposited at Low Solution Concentrations by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) Technique. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 1293-1305.

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