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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8181-8207; doi:10.3390/ijms12118181

Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia

Diet, Genomics, & Immunology Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 18 October 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
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Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known antioxidant effects, select polyphenols also have insulin-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, and anti-apoptotic properties. One important consequence of ischemia is neuronal death and oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal viability. In addition, neuronal death may be initiated by the activation of mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Another consequence of ischemia that is possibly mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction is glial swelling, a component of cytotoxic brain edema. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death, cell swelling, and brain edema in ischemia. A review of currently known mechanisms underlying neuronal death and edema/cell swelling will be undertaken and the potential of dietary polyphenols to reduce such neural damage will be critically reviewed.
Keywords: ischemia; apoptosis; inflammation; edema; glia; mPT ischemia; apoptosis; inflammation; edema; glia; mPT
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Panickar, K.S.; Anderson, R.A. Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 8181-8207.

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