Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8181-8207; doi:10.3390/ijms12118181
Review

Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia

*  and
Received: 19 September 2011; in revised form: 18 October 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [288 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known antioxidant effects, select polyphenols also have insulin-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, and anti-apoptotic properties. One important consequence of ischemia is neuronal death and oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal viability. In addition, neuronal death may be initiated by the activation of mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Another consequence of ischemia that is possibly mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction is glial swelling, a component of cytotoxic brain edema. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death, cell swelling, and brain edema in ischemia. A review of currently known mechanisms underlying neuronal death and edema/cell swelling will be undertaken and the potential of dietary polyphenols to reduce such neural damage will be critically reviewed.
Keywords: ischemia; apoptosis; inflammation; edema; glia; mPT ischemia; apoptosis; inflammation; edema; glia; mPT
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Panickar, K.S.; Anderson, R.A. Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 8181-8207.

AMA Style

Panickar KS, Anderson RA. Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(11):8181-8207.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Panickar, Kiran S.; Anderson, Richard A. 2011. "Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 11: 8181-8207.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert