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Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes
Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Medicina Experimental, División de Investigación Biomédica, Centro Médico Nacional “20 de Noviembre”, ISSSTE, México, D.F., Mexico
Área Académica de Medicina Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Ex-Hacienda de la Concepción, Tilcuautla, 42080 Pachuca de Soto, Hgo., Mexico
Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México, D.F., Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2010; in revised form: 3 September 2010 / Accepted: 20 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Abstract: Fluoride is naturally present in the earth's crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF) as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm) NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT) oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm) for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks.
Keywords: sodium fluoride; apoptosis; leukocytes; p53; bcl-2; caspase-3
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Gutiérrez-Salinas, J.; Morales-González, J.A.; Madrigal-Santillán, E.; Esquivel-Soto, J.; Esquivel-Chirino, C.; González-Rubio, M.-L.; Suástegui-Domínguez, S.; Valadez-Vega, C. Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 3610-3622.
Gutiérrez-Salinas J, Morales-González JA, Madrigal-Santillán E, Esquivel-Soto J, Esquivel-Chirino C, González-Rubio M-L, Suástegui-Domínguez S, Valadez-Vega C. Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(9):3610-3622.
Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Morales-González, José A.; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna y; Suástegui-Domínguez, Sigrit; Valadez-Vega, Carmen. 2010. "Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 9: 3610-3622.