Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(3), 789-806; doi:10.3390/ijms11030789
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Interleukin 12 a Key Immunoregulatory Cytokine in Infection Applications

1,2email, 3email and 1,2,4,5,* email
1 Biomaterials, Bioengineering & Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA 2 Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences Graduate Program, Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA 3 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA 4 WVNano Initiative, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA 5 Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Mineral Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2010; Accepted: 24 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biomimetics and Materials Design)
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Abstract: Interleukin 12 (termed IL-12p70 and commonly designated IL-12) is an important immunoregulatory cytokine that is produced mainly by antigen-presenting cells. The expression of IL-12 during infection regulates innate responses and determines the type of adaptive immune responses. IL-12 induces interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production and triggers CD4+ T cells to differentiate into type 1 T helper (Th1) cells. Studies have suggested that IL-12 could play a vital role in treating many diseases, such as viral and bacterial infections and cancers. The unique heterodimeric structure, which IL-12 shares with its family members including IL-23, IL-27, and IL-35, has recently brought more attention to understanding the mechanisms that regulate the functions of IL-12. This article describes the structure and biological activities of IL-12 in both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, and discusses the applications of IL-12 in treating and preventing infections.
Keywords: interleukin 12; infection; interferon-γ; cell-mediated immunity; cell signaling

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hamza, T.; Barnett, J.B.; Li, B. Interleukin 12 a Key Immunoregulatory Cytokine in Infection Applications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 789-806.

AMA Style

Hamza T, Barnett JB, Li B. Interleukin 12 a Key Immunoregulatory Cytokine in Infection Applications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(3):789-806.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hamza, Therwa; Barnett, John B.; Li, Bingyun. 2010. "Interleukin 12 a Key Immunoregulatory Cytokine in Infection Applications." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 3: 789-806.

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