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Mutual Solubility Study in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Tocopherols from Crude Palm Oil Using CO2 Solvent
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349, Iran
School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2010; in revised form: 24 August 2010 / Accepted: 7 September 2010 / Published: 28 September 2010
Abstract: In this article, the mutual solubility of tocopherols from crude palm oil was studied using carbon dioxide as a solvent at the temperatures of 80, 100 and 120 ºC. Each sample from the phase equilibrium unit contained two parts. The liquid part was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in order to measure the tocopherol composition and, on the other hand, the vapor phase was conducted in an expansion vessel in order to measure the pressure increment during the expansion process. Two phase equilibrium data was calculated using the liquid phase composition and pressure increments during the expansion process. Results showed that the maximum solubility of tocopherols was around 2.27% at a temperature of 120 ºC and at pressure of 5.44 MPa.
Keywords: crude palm oil; phase behavior; supercritical extraction; tocopherols
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MDPI and ACS Style
Davarnejad, R.; Ahmad, Z.; Sata, S.A.; Moraveji, M.K.; Ahmadloo, F. Mutual Solubility Study in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Tocopherols from Crude Palm Oil Using CO2 Solvent. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 3649-3659.
Davarnejad R, Ahmad Z, Sata SA, Moraveji MK, Ahmadloo F. Mutual Solubility Study in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Tocopherols from Crude Palm Oil Using CO2 Solvent. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(10):3649-3659.
Davarnejad, Reza; Ahmad, Zainal; Sata, Suhairi A.; Moraveji, Mostafa Keshavarz; Ahmadloo, Farzaneh. 2010. "Mutual Solubility Study in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Tocopherols from Crude Palm Oil Using CO2 Solvent." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 10: 3649-3659.