Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(7), 3209-3223; doi:10.3390/ijms10073209
Article

Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints

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Received: 20 May 2009; in revised form: 9 July 2009 / Accepted: 10 July 2009 / Published: 14 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan- and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions.
Keywords: marine biofouling; copper antifouling paint; chitosan; static field testing; microalgae
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pelletier, É.; Bonnet, C.; Lemarchand, K. Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 3209-3223.

AMA Style

Pelletier É, Bonnet C, Lemarchand K. Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(7):3209-3223.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pelletier, Émilien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine. 2009. "Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 7: 3209-3223.

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