A correction was published on 17 April 2009, see Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(4), 1728.

Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(4), 1476-1499; doi:10.3390/ijms10041476
Review

Early Events, Kinetic Intermediates and the Mechanism of Protein Folding in Cytochrome c

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Received: 26 February 2009; in revised form: 27 March 2009 / Accepted: 30 March 2009 / Published: 1 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Folding)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Kinetic studies of the early events in cytochrome c folding are reviewed with a focus on the evidence for folding intermediates on the submillisecond timescale. Evidence from time-resolved absorption, circular dichroism, magnetic circular dichroism, fluorescence energy and electron transfer, small-angle X-ray scattering and amide hydrogen exchange studies on the t £ 1 ms timescale reveals a picture of cytochrome c folding that starts with the ~ 1-ms conformational diffusion dynamics of the unfolded chains. A fractional population of the unfolded chains collapses on the 1 – 100 ms timescale to a compact intermediate IC containing some native-like secondary structure. Although the existence and nature of IC as a discrete folding intermediate remains controversial, there is extensive high time-resolution kinetic evidence for the rapid formation of IC as a true intermediate, i.e., a metastable state separated from the unfolded state by a discrete free energy barrier. Final folding to the native state takes place on millisecond and longer timescales, depending on the presence of kinetic traps such as heme misligation and proline mis-isomerization. The high folding rates observed in equilibrium molten globule models suggest that IC may be a productive folding intermediate. Whether it is an obligatory step on the pathway to the high free energy barrier associated with millisecond timescale folding to the native state, however, remains to be determined.
Keywords: Collapsed intermediate; secondary structure formation; disordered tertiary structure; conformational diffusion; unfolded chains; molten globule; heme misligation; time-resolved spectroscopy; far-UV circular dichroism; magnetic circular dichroism; Trp59 fluorescence; amide hydrogen exchange; small-angle X-ray scattering; thermophiles; three-state pathway
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goldbeck, R.A.; Chen, E.; Kliger, D.S. Early Events, Kinetic Intermediates and the Mechanism of Protein Folding in Cytochrome c. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 1476-1499.

AMA Style

Goldbeck RA, Chen E, Kliger DS. Early Events, Kinetic Intermediates and the Mechanism of Protein Folding in Cytochrome c. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(4):1476-1499.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goldbeck, Robert A.; Chen, Eefei; Kliger, David S. 2009. "Early Events, Kinetic Intermediates and the Mechanism of Protein Folding in Cytochrome c." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 4: 1476-1499.

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