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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092244

Effects of Germination on Protein, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Phenolic Acids, and Antioxidant Capacity in Wheat

1
Research Group of Food Processing, Korea Food Research Institute, Jeollabuk-do 55465, Korea
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, Changwon National University, Changwon 51140, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Capacities of Natural Products)
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Abstract

Germinated wheat is a food material with potential health benefits due to its high phenolic and antioxidant content, but the reason why germination increases this content is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between protein changes (determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)), phenolics, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels, and antioxidant capacity of wheat germinated for various periods (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) compared to control. Each phenolic acid tended to increase with increasing germination time. The GABA content was highest (39.98 mg/100 g dwb) after 96 h of germination. The total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was 1.97 times higher after 96 h than in ungerminated seeds. Fifteen proteins, among 82 proteins separated by 2-DE, were highly related with ORAC and were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMS). The PMS revealed strong expression of granule bound starch synthase (GBSS) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTF) after 96 h of germination. Overall, the ORAC at 96 h exhibited a close relationship with the levels of phenolic acids, GABA, and proteins such as GBSS and GSTF. In conclusion, these findings add to the existing knowledge of wheat protein changes and their relationship to the antioxidant properties of germinating wheat seeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat; germination; antioxidant capacity; phenolic acid; two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) wheat; germination; antioxidant capacity; phenolic acid; two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, M.J.; Kwak, H.S.; Kim, S.S. Effects of Germination on Protein, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Phenolic Acids, and Antioxidant Capacity in Wheat. Molecules 2018, 23, 2244.

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