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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2110; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092110

Environmentally-Friendly Extraction of Flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja Leaves with Deep Eutectic Solvents and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activities

1
Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China
2
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Extraction, Separation and Purification Processes)
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Abstract

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are commonly employed as environmentally-friendly solvents in numerous chemical applications owing to their unique physicochemical properties. In this study, a novel and environmentally-friendly extraction method based on ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent extraction (UAE-DES) was investigated for the extraction of flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C. paliurus) leaves, and the antioxidant activities of these flavonoids were evaluated. Nine different DES systems based on either two or three components were tested, and the choline chloride/1,4–butanediol system (1:5 molar ratio) was selected as the optimal system for maximizing the flavonoid extraction yields. Other extraction conditions required to achieve the maximum flavonoid extraction yields from the leaves of C. paliurus were as follows: DES water content (v/v), 30%; extraction time, 30 min; temperature, 60 °C; and solid-liquid ratio, 20 mg/mL. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the detection of five flavonoids in the extract, namely kaempferol-7-O-α-l-rhamnoside, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide. In vitro antioxidant tests revealed that the flavonoid-containing extract exhibited strong DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging abilities. Results indicate that UAE-DES is a suitable approach for the selective extraction of flavonoids from C. paliurus leaves, and DESs can be employed as sustainable extraction media for other bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cyclocarya paliurus; deep eutectic solvent; extraction; flavonoid; antioxidant activity Cyclocarya paliurus; deep eutectic solvent; extraction; flavonoid; antioxidant activity
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Shang, X.; Tan, J.-N.; Du, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Z. Environmentally-Friendly Extraction of Flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja Leaves with Deep Eutectic Solvents and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activities. Molecules 2018, 23, 2110.

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