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Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061376

In Situ Monitoring of the Effect of Ultrasound on the Sulfhydryl Groups and Disulfide Bonds of Wheat Gluten

1,2,3
,
1
,
1,2,3
,
1,2,3,* and 4,*
1
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, 5 Dongfeng Road, Zhengzhou 450002, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center for Food Production and Safety, 5 Dongfeng Road, Zhengzhou 450002, China
3
Henan Key Laboratory of Cold Chain Food Quality and Safety Control, 5 Dongfeng Road, Zhengzhou 450002, China
4
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract

Ultrasound treatment can improve enzymolysis efficiency by changing the amounts of sulfhydryl groups (SH) and disulfide bonds (SS) in protein. This paper proposes an in-situ and real-time monitoring method for SH and SS during ultrasound application processes using a miniature near-infrared (NIR) optical fiber spectrometer and a chemometrics model to determine the endpoint of ultrasonic treatment. The results show that SH and SS contents fluctuated greatly with the extension of ultrasonic time. The optimal spectral intervals for SH content were 869–947, 1207–1284, 1458–1536 and 2205–2274 nm, the optimal spectral intervals of SS content were 933–992, 1388–1446, 2091–2148 and 2217–2274 nm. According to the optimal spectral intervals, the synergy interval partial least squares (Si-PLS) and error back propagation neural network (BP-ANN) for SH, SS contents were established. The BP-ANN model was better than the Si-PLS model. The correlation coefficient of the prediction set (Rp) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for the BP-ANN model of SH were 0.9113 and 0.38 μmol/g, respectively, the Rp2 and residual prediction deviation of SH were 0.8305 and 2.91, respectively. For the BP-ANN model of SS, the Rp and the RMSEP were 0.7523 and 6.56 μmol/g, respectively. The Rp2 and residual prediction deviation (RPD) of SS were 0.8305 and 2.91, respectively. However, the Rp2 and RPD of SS was 0.5660 and 1.64, respectively. This work demonstrated that the miniature NIR combined with BP-ANN algorithms has high potential for in-situ monitoring of SH during the ultrasonic treatment process, while the spectral prediction model of SS needs to be further developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat gluten; ultrasonic treatment; sulfhydryl groups; disulfide bonds; in-situ monitoring wheat gluten; ultrasonic treatment; sulfhydryl groups; disulfide bonds; in-situ monitoring
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Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Li, S.; Zhang, H.; Ma, H. In Situ Monitoring of the Effect of Ultrasound on the Sulfhydryl Groups and Disulfide Bonds of Wheat Gluten. Molecules 2018, 23, 1376.

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