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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051210

Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurotoxicity and Neuroinflammation in Primary Mesencephalic Cultures

1
Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation (Yantai University), School of Pharmacy, Ministry of Education, Yantai University, Yantai 264005, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Yantai University, Yantai 264005, China
3
Center of Mitochondria and Healthy Aging, School of Life Science, Yantai University, Yantai 264005, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation triggers and accelerates the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Carthamus tinctorius L., a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A (HSYA) is an active component of C. tinctorius. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether HSYA could attenuate LPS-induced neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation in primary mesencephalic cultures. Cell viability was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neuron was observed by immunohistochemistry. NF-κB p65 and iNOS expressions were evaluated with western blotting method. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α were determined by ELISA kits. Nitric oxide (NO) content in the culture medium was assayed. The results showed that HSYA treatment significantly attenuated the LPS-induced dopaminergic neurons damage. HSYA partially inhibited the expressions of NF-κB p65 and iNOS. Furthermore, HSYA decreased the content of IL-1β, TNF-α and NO in the supernatants. Taken together, these results suggest that HSYA exerts protective effects on LPS-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons and the mechanisms may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory response. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hydroxysafflor Yellow A; lipopolysaccharide; neurotoxicity; neuroinflammation Hydroxysafflor Yellow A; lipopolysaccharide; neurotoxicity; neuroinflammation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, T.; Ding, Y.-X.; He, J.; Ma, C.-J.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, Z.-H.; Han, B. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurotoxicity and Neuroinflammation in Primary Mesencephalic Cultures. Molecules 2018, 23, 1210.

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