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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051165

Ultrasonically Modified Amended-Cloud Point Extraction for Simultaneous Pre-Concentration of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Residues

1
Creative Chemistry and Innovation Research Unit, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand
2
Materials Chemistry Research Center, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Khon Kaen Campus, Khon Kaen 40000, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Analytical Chemistry)
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Abstract

An effective pre-concentration method, namely amended-cloud point extraction (CPE), has been developed for the extraction and pre-concentration of neonicotinoid insecticide residues. The studied analytes including clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were chosen as a model compound. The amended-CPE procedure included two cloud point processes. Triton™ X-114 was used to extract neonicotinoid residues into the surfactant-rich phase and then the analytes were transferred into an alkaline solution with the help of ultrasound energy. The extracts were then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a monolithic column. Several factors influencing the extraction efficiency were studied such as kind and concentration of surfactant, type and content of salts, kind and concentration of back extraction agent, and incubation temperature and time. Enrichment factors (EFs) were found in the range of 20–333 folds. The limits of detection of the studied neonicotinoids were in the range of 0.0003–0.002 µg mL−1 which are below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union (EU). Good repeatability was obtained with relative standard deviations lower than 1.92% and 4.54% for retention time (tR) and peak area, respectively. The developed extraction method was successfully applied for the analysis of water samples. No detectable residues of neonicotinoids in the studied samples were found. View Full-Text
Keywords: dual-cloud point extraction; high-performance liquid chromatography; neonicotinoid insecticides; water samples dual-cloud point extraction; high-performance liquid chromatography; neonicotinoid insecticides; water samples
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Kachangoon, R.; Vichapong, J.; Burakham, R.; Santaladchaiyakit, Y.; Srijaranai, S. Ultrasonically Modified Amended-Cloud Point Extraction for Simultaneous Pre-Concentration of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Residues. Molecules 2018, 23, 1165.

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