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Molecules 2018, 23(4), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040876

Epigallocatechin Gallate-Modified Gelatin Sponges Treated by Vacuum Heating as a Novel Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

1
Institute of Dental Research, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Kuzuhahanazonocho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan
2
Department of Oral Implantology, Osaka Dental University, 1-5-17, Otemae, Chuo-ku, Osaka 540-0008, Japan
3
Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 1-5-17, Otemae, Chuo-ku, Osaka 540-0008, Japan
4
First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Osaka Dental University, 1-5-17, Otemae, Chuo-ku, Osaka 540-0008, Japan
5
Department of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Osaka Dental University; 1-4-4, Makinohonmachi, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1144, Japan
6
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Osaka Dental University, 1-5-17, Otemae, Chuo-ku, Osaka 540-0008, Japan
7
Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Kuzuhahanazonocho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan
8
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mamoru Isemura
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catechin in Human Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Chemical modification of gelatin using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) promotes bone formation in vivo. However, further improvements are required to increase the mechanical strength and bone-forming ability of fabricated EGCG-modified gelatin sponges (EGCG-GS) for practical applications in regenerative therapy. In the present study, we investigated whether vacuum heating-induced dehydrothermal cross-linking of EGCG-GS enhances bone formation in critical-sized rat calvarial defects. The bone-forming ability of vacuum-heated EGCG-GS (vhEGCG-GS) and other sponges was evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histological staining. The degradation of sponges was assessed using protein assays, and cell morphology and proliferation were verified by scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining using osteoblastic UMR106 cells in vitro. Four weeks after the implantation of sponges, greater bone formation was detected for vhEGCG-GS than for EGCG-GS or vacuum-heated gelatin sponges (dehydrothermal cross-linked sponges without EGCG). In vitro experiments revealed that the relatively low degradability of vhEGCG-GS supports cell attachment, proliferation, and cell–cell communication on the matrix. These findings suggest that vacuum heating enhanced the bone forming ability of EGCG-GS, possibly via the dehydrothermal cross-linking of EGCG-GS, which provides a scaffold for cells, and by maintaining the pharmacological effect of EGCG. View Full-Text
Keywords: catechin; EGCG; vacuum heating; dehydrothermal; UMR106; gelatin; scaffold; bone formation; rat calvaria catechin; EGCG; vacuum heating; dehydrothermal; UMR106; gelatin; scaffold; bone formation; rat calvaria
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Honda, Y.; Takeda, Y.; Li, P.; Huang, A.; Sasayama, S.; Hara, E.; Uemura, N.; Ueda, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Arita, K.; Matsumoto, N.; Hashimoto, Y.; Baba, S.; Tanaka, T. Epigallocatechin Gallate-Modified Gelatin Sponges Treated by Vacuum Heating as a Novel Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering. Molecules 2018, 23, 876.

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