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Molecules 2018, 23(4), 850; doi:10.3390/molecules23040850

Monitoring of the Apple Fruit Moth: Detection of Genetic Variation and Structure Applying a Novel Multiplex Set of 19 STR Markers

1
NIBIO, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Hoghskoleveien 7, N-1431 Aas, Norway
2
NIBIO, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Svanhovd, N-9925 Svanvik, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract

The apple fruit moth Argyresthia conjugella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) is a seed predator of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and is distributed in Europe and Asia. In Fennoscandia (Finland, Norway and Sweden), rowan fruit production is low every 2–4 years, and apple (Malus domestica) functions as an alternative host, resulting in economic loss in apple crops in inter-mast years. We have used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to identify a set of 19 novel tetra-nucleotide short tandem repeats (STRs) in Argyresthia conjugella. Such motifs are recommended for genetic monitoring, which may help to determine the eco-evolutionary processes acting on this pest insect. The 19 STRs were optimized and amplified into five multiplex PCR reactions. We tested individuals collected from Norway and Sweden (n = 64), and detected very high genetic variation (average 13.6 alleles, He = 0.75) compared to most other Lepidoptera species studied so far. Spatial genetic differentiation was low and gene flow was high in the test populations, although two non-spatial clusters could be detected. We conclude that this set of genetic markers may be a useful resource for population genetic monitoring of this economical important insect species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Argyresthia conjugella; Lepidoptera; multiplex PCR; next-generation sequencing (NGS); tetranucleotide repeats Argyresthia conjugella; Lepidoptera; multiplex PCR; next-generation sequencing (NGS); tetranucleotide repeats
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Elameen, A.; Eiken, H.G.; Fløystad, I.; Knudsen, G.; Hagen, S.B. Monitoring of the Apple Fruit Moth: Detection of Genetic Variation and Structure Applying a Novel Multiplex Set of 19 STR Markers. Molecules 2018, 23, 850.

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