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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 308; doi:10.3390/molecules23020308

Synthesis and Biological Evaluations of NO-Donating Oxa- and Aza-Pentacycloundecane Derivatives as Potential Neuroprotective Candidates

Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa
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Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 28 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Agents)
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Abstract

In order to utilize the neuroprotective properties of polycyclic cage compounds, and explore the NO-donating ability of nitrophenyl groups, an array of compounds was synthesized where the different nitrophenyl groups were appended on oxa and aza-bridged cage derivatives. Biological evaluations of the compounds were done for cytotoxicity, neuroprotective abilities, the inhibition of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated Ca2+ influx, the inhibition of voltage-mediated Ca2+ influx, and S-nitrosylation abilities. All of the compounds showed low toxicity. With a few exceptions, most of the compounds displayed good neuroprotection and showed inhibitory activity for NMDA-mediated and voltage-gated calcium influx, ranging from high (>70%) to low (20–39%) inhibition. In the S-nitrosylation assay, the compounds with the nitro moiety as the NO-donating group exhibited low to good nitrosylation potency compared to the positive controls. From the biological evaluation of the tested compounds, it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation that could explain the results across all of the biological study domains. This can be ascribed to the independent processes evaluated in the different assays, which reiterate that neuroprotection is a result of multifactorial biochemical mechanisms and interactions. However, these results signify the important aspects of the pentacylcoundecylamine neuroprotectants across different biological study realms. View Full-Text
Keywords: NO-donating; S-nitrosylation; neuroprotection; polycyclic cage; calcium influx NO-donating; S-nitrosylation; neuroprotection; polycyclic cage; calcium influx
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sharma, R.; Joubert, J.; Malan, S.F. Synthesis and Biological Evaluations of NO-Donating Oxa- and Aza-Pentacycloundecane Derivatives as Potential Neuroprotective Candidates. Molecules 2018, 23, 308.

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