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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020267

Isolation and Quantification of Ginsenoside Rh23, a New Anti-Melanogenic Compound from the Leaves of Panax ginseng

1
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 27709, Korea
2
Department of Oriental Medicine Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
3
College of Herbal Bio-industry, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 38610, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Secondary Metabolites)
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Abstract

A new ginsenoside, named ginsenoside Rh23 (1), and 20-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β,6α,12β,20β,25-pentahydroxydammar-23-ene (2) were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. Compounds were isolated by various column chromatography and their structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including high resolution quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (HR-QTOF/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. To determine anti-melanogenic activity, the change in the melanin content in melan-a cells treated with identified compounds was tested. Additionally, we investigated the melanin inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rh23 on pigmentation in a zebrafish in vivo model. Compound 1 inhibited potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells with 37.0% melanogenesis inhibition at 80 µM and also presented inhibition on the body pigmentation in zebrafish model. Although compound 2 showed slightly lower inhibitory activity than compound 1, it also showed significantly decreased melanogenesis in melan-a cell and in zebrafish model. These results indicated that compounds isolated from hydroponic P. ginseng may be used as new skin whitening compound through the in vitro and in vivo systems. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the utility of MS-based compound 1 for the quantitative analysis. Ginsenoside Rh23 (1) was found at a level of 0.31 mg/g in leaves of hydroponic P. ginseng. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginsenoside Rh23; Panax ginseng; NMR; UPLC-QTOF/MS; zebrafish; quantitative analysis ginsenoside Rh23; Panax ginseng; NMR; UPLC-QTOF/MS; zebrafish; quantitative analysis
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Lee, D.Y.; Kim, H.-G.; Lee, Y.-G.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.W.; Choi, B.-R.; Jang, I.-B.; Kim, G.-S.; Baek, N.-I. Isolation and Quantification of Ginsenoside Rh23, a New Anti-Melanogenic Compound from the Leaves of Panax ginseng. Molecules 2018, 23, 267.

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