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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020258

Action of Phytochemicals on Insulin Signaling Pathways Accelerating Glucose Transporter (GLUT4) Protein Translocation

1
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor’s University, Lakeside Campus, 47500 Subang Jaya, Malaysia
3
Clinical Skills, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor’s University, Lakeside Campus, 47500 Subang Jaya, Malaysia
4
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, East West University, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
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Abstract

Diabetes is associated with obesity, generally accompanied by a chronic state of oxidative stress and redox imbalances which are implicated in the progression of micro- and macro-complications like heart disease, stroke, dementia, cancer, kidney failure and blindness. All these complications rise primarily due to consistent high blood glucose levels. Insulin and glucagon help to maintain the homeostasis of glucose and lipids through signaling cascades. Pancreatic hormones stimulate translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from an intracellular location to the cell surface and facilitate the rapid insulin-dependent storage of glucose in muscle and fat cells. Malfunction in glucose uptake mechanisms, primarily contribute to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Plant secondary metabolites, commonly known as phytochemicals, are reported to have great benefits in the management of type 2 diabetes. The role of phytochemicals and their action on insulin signaling pathways through stimulation of GLUT4 translocation is crucial to understand the pathogenesis of this disease in the management process. This review will summarize the effects of phytochemicals and their action on insulin signaling pathways accelerating GLUT4 translocation based on the current literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: insulin receptor; insulin signaling pathways; PI3K; APS; GLUT4 translocation; phytochemicals insulin receptor; insulin signaling pathways; PI3K; APS; GLUT4 translocation; phytochemicals
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Sayem, A.S.M.; Arya, A.; Karimian, H.; Krishnasamy, N.; Ashok Hasamnis, A.; Hossain, C.F. Action of Phytochemicals on Insulin Signaling Pathways Accelerating Glucose Transporter (GLUT4) Protein Translocation. Molecules 2018, 23, 258.

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