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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020240

Anti-Tumor and Radiosensitization Effects of N-Butylidenephthalide on Human Breast Cancer Cells

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taichung 42743, Taiwan
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Hsinchu Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu 30071, Taiwan
3
Department of Research, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taichung 42743, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5
Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taichung 42743, Taiwan
6
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taichung 42743, Taiwan
7
General Education Center, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien 97005, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Natural Products: Anticancer Potential and Beyond)
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Abstract

N-Butylidenephthalide (BP), which is extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine, Radix Angelica Sinensis (danggui), displays antitumor activity against various cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effect of BP and the underlying mechanism of action in human breast cancer cells. BP induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells, which was revealed by the TUNEL assay; the activation of caspase-9 and PARP was detected by western blot. In addition, BP-induced G2/M arrest was examined by flow cytometry and the expression levels of the G2/M regulatory protein were detected by western blot. BP also suppresses the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, which was tested by wound healing and the matrigel invasion assay; the involvement of EMT-related gene expressions was detected by real-time PCR. Furthermore, BP enhanced the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells, which was measured by the colony formation assay and comet assay, where the foci of γ-H2AX after radiation significantly increased in BP pretreated cells and was evidenced by immunocytochemistry staining and western blot. The homologous recombination (HR) repair protein Rad51 was down-regulated after BP pretreatment. These results indicate that BP might be a potential chemotherapeutic and radiosensitizing agent for breast cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; breast cancer; G2/M arrest; metastasis; N-butylidenephthalide; radiosensitization apoptosis; breast cancer; G2/M arrest; metastasis; N-butylidenephthalide; radiosensitization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Su, Y.-J.; Huang, S.-Y.; Ni, Y.-H.; Liao, K.-F.; Chiu, S.-C. Anti-Tumor and Radiosensitization Effects of N-Butylidenephthalide on Human Breast Cancer Cells. Molecules 2018, 23, 240.

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