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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1469; doi:10.3390/molecules22091469

Fructus Ligustri Lucidi in Osteoporosis: A Review of its Pharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacokinetics and Safety

1
Traditional Chinese Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
2
Chinese Material Medica School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
3
Diabetes Research Center, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
4
The Research Institute of McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract

Background: Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) has now attracted increasing attention as an alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. This study aimed to provide a general review of traditional interpretation of the actions of FLL in osteoporosis, main phytochemical constituents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology in bone improving effect, and safety. Materials and Methods: Several databases, including PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, National Science and Technology Library, China Science and Technology Journal Database, and Web of Science were consulted to locate publications pertaining to FLL. The initial inquiry was conducted for the presence of the following keywords combinations in the abstracts: Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, osteoporosis, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, salidroside. About 150 research papers and reviews were consulted. Results: FLL is assumed to exhibit anti-osteoporotic effects by improving liver and kidney deficiencies and reducing lower back soreness in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The data from animal and cell experiments demonstrate that FLL is able to improve bone metabolism and bone quality in ovariectomized, growing, aged and diabetic rats through the regulation of PTH/FGF-23/1,25-(OH)2D3/CaSR, Nox4/ROS/NF-κB, and OPG/RANKL/cathepsin K signaling pathways. More than 100 individual compounds have been isolated from this plant. Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, salidroside, and nuzhenide have been reported to exhibit the anti-osteoporosis effect. The pharmacokinetics data reveals that salidroside is one of the active constituents, and that tyrosol is hard to detect under physiological conditions. Acute and subacute toxicity studies show that FLL is well tolerated and presents no safety concerns. Conclusions: FLL provides a new option for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, which attracts rising interests in identifying potential anti-osteoporotic compounds and fractions from this plant. Further scientific evidences are expected from well-designed clinical trials on its bone protective effects and safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL); osteoporosis; pharmacology; phytochemistry; pharmacokinetics; safety Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL); osteoporosis; pharmacology; phytochemistry; pharmacokinetics; safety
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Chen, B.; Wang, L.; Li, L.; Zhu, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, C.; Ma, R.; Jia, Q.; Zhao, D.; Niu, J.; Fu, M.; Gao, S.; Zhang, D. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi in Osteoporosis: A Review of its Pharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacokinetics and Safety. Molecules 2017, 22, 1469.

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